Impact of energy storages and electric vehicles in peer-to-peer networks

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To enable the sustainable energy transformation, integrating renewable energy sources into the grid while maintaining security and stability of supply is a key challenge. Particularly in Germany, the number of decentralized photovoltaic generators is increasing, which in turn results in a rising demand for flexibility solutions. One approach of bringing flexibility into the system is the connection of residential peers that are trading electricity in a local peer-to-peer market. Blockchain technologies boost the establishment of such local markets by promoting the transparency of transactions and reducing the costs of market intermediaries.
The objective of the research project BASE.V is to examine the effect of a local peer-to-peer market in Germany to quantify the potential benefit both to the individual households and the grid stability. Within the system two main flexibility options are incorporated: stationary residential storages and bidirectional electric vehicles, which are capable of feeding-in electricity to the grid (vehicle-to-grid). Here, the electric vehicles add complexity to the model, as they are not constantly connected to the grid, but they also add value through their relatively high power and energy capacities compared to residential storages.
In this work, we compare a central versus a decentralized optimization of the local market. In the former, the economic welfare of the whole market is maximized, whereas the latter optimizes the electricity costs for each prosumer household. The methodology is structured as follows. First, the home energy management system optimizes the power flows within the household, including when to charge or discharge the storages. Next, the trading offers are generated and submitted to the clearing point. Once cleared, the offers are logged as transactions on the blockchain. The peers can trade one day in advance with re-evaluations possible every 15 minutes. Central to this study, the techno-economic effects of peer-to-peer trading on the participating parties will be shown.

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